Child obesity paper help outline:
Obesity is the excess accumulation of body fat that results from a serious form of malnutrition.
Psychological explanations for obesity often focus on maladaptive reactions to stress. Many people tend to overeat when they are under stress, a reaction that may be extensive among those who become obese.
Childhood obesity is an important predictor of obesity in adulthood.
Child obesity paper help: Factors leading to childhood obesity:
II-Factors in childhood obesity
1-Heredity: Children’s weights correlate with those of their parents. According to Alvin Eldin, the oppestate , the hypothalonic appetite regulator, is set higher genetically in some people or they inherit more fat cells.
2-Influence of breast feeding: Von Kries and Koltzco designed a cross sectional study in 1999 to access the impact of breast feeding on obesity. The survey was done in southern Germany and the sample studied included 134,577 children aged between five and six years. The results of the survey showed that the risk of obesity in those who had never been breast fed was 4.5% as compared with 2.8% in breast fed children.
According to Hilde Bruch, overeating is caused mostly by: (a) a response to tension, (b) substitute gratification in frightening situations, (c) emotional stress, (d) food addiction. To the timid child, physical bulk represents safety and a defense against the world’s responsibilities. Since exercise and social contacts appear dangerous, the fat child generally lacks sources of satisfaction outside food.
Boredom, loneliness, frustration and feeling unloved contribute to food indulgence too.
1-Influence of the home environment: Many studies proved that household income is a significant prediction of childhood obesity. Children with low income families were at a higher risk of becoming obese. Children who lived with single mothers, black children, children with unemployed parents, and children whose mothers didn’t complete high school were also more likely to become obese. Home emotional scores and gender were proved to insignificant predictors of obesity.
2-Parental influence: Parents play a major role in the development of obesity. In fact, many parents think that by over feeding their children, they are making them stronger and healthier. Parents may extensively use consumable reinforcers which involve candies, junk food, pop corn and others while shaping a certain behavior in the child.
III-Consequences and disadvantages of childhood obesity: According to Resnick and Dewey: (a) an obese may remain mother-dependent, (b) people expect less from fat children. For instance the obese child is the last child to be chosen for a school team and his chances for college, following an interview are reduced. Obese children face problems in sports, in buying and wearing clothes, and in gaining respect and admiration. They are often ridiculed by their colleagues.
Childhood obesity increases the risk of obesity in adulthood. Thus we can say that it has severe physiological consequences such as diabetes, high blood pressure and heart attacks. Fat individuals have fewer marital choices and have less chances to get executive jobs.
IV-Treatment of Childhood Obesity
Because of the physical, psychological and social disadvantages of obesity, many preventions can be taken into consideration, by promoting breastfeeding in industrialized countries, increasing parents’ awareness of the disadvantages of consumable reinforcers, and overeating and by encouraging children to participate in sports and e more active.
1-Psychoanalysis: Psychoanalysis has contributed substantially to present knowledge of psychological factors associated with obesity. The classic psychoanalytical view is that obesity is the product of dysfunctions occurring during the oral stage of development. Resolving the conflicts may improve the obese condition.
2-Behavioral therapy: Stimulus control, eating management, contingency management and self-monitoring have generally formed the core of most behaviorally based weight control therapies because of their assumed efficacy. This approach is goal oriented, the objectives and methods of treatment are clearly specified in weekly homework as assignments that patients discuss with their counselors.
Patients are asked to increase their physical activity by a variety of changes in lifestyle, such as walking more, using stairs, and reducing their dependence on energy-saving devices such as remote control devices.
Obesity is the most common health problem facing children. The most recent data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey suggest that 22% of children are overweight and that 11% are obese.