Artificial Intelligence Term paper: 

In the past three decades, a lot of focus has been put on artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence relates activities that provide computers with the ability to display behavior that would be considered as intelligent if detected in human beings.

Expert systems are a product of artificial intelligence, particularly that they are intended to turn computers and computer systems into intelligent machines that are capable of providing advise to human beings.


An expert system is a program that represents the knowledge of human experts in the form of heuristics. In other words, these programs provide the user with rules of thumb or with general and specific guidelines to follow in the course of solving problems. In other words, expert systems are defined as consultants since when using them, managers are said to be making consultations.

Four components are involved in expert systems. The first is user interface which enables the user to interact with the system. The second is knowledge base where accumulated knowledge of experts is pooled for use by managers. The third is the inference engine which provides for reasoning ability as it interprets contents. The last component is the development engine which results in consultation for the manager.


Advantageously, an expert system will provide a manager with more alternatives to choose from in order to form a course of action. It also applies a higher level of logic needed in decision making and problem solving. Furthermore, an expert system enables managers to develop more time to evaluate decision results. In general, the application of expert systems will help management make more consistent decisions on the level of the organization as a whole, something which eventually leads to better performance in and by the firm. Finally, an expert system enables the organization as a firm to have better control over knowledge.

A few disadvantages are related to expert systems. First of all, they cannot handle inconsistent knowledge since these require a high level of innovation. Secondly, these systems cannot apply judgement and intuition for solving semi-structured problems.


Basically, there are two main applications that are related to expert systems. The first is explanation of problems, since these systems provide managers with interpretation of problems in simple terms which eventually make decision making a much easier process.

Secondly, an expert system will offer consultation in the form of explanation of the problem solution. This enables the manager to understand the components of the solution so that his decision is fully logical.