A Sample Annotated Bibliography: Vaccine Annotated Bibliography
Long Quote sample
“The quality of The Lancet paper [the paper that started the connection with autism and vaccines], and other output from the research group, has been widely criticized, being described by the Chief Medical Officer of the UK as poor science. The reported associations have not been confirmed by anyone, anywhere in the world” (Taylor 513).
Taylor, Brent. “Vaccines and the changing epidemiology of autism.” Journal compilation 32.5 (2006): 511-519. Web.
This paper outlines the fact that it is most likely that incidences of autism have not actually increased, rather our diagnostic capabilities have improve and our definitions of the disease have expanded so that previously undetected cases are now being detected. The very discussion of prevalence versus incidence often overlooks that prevalence is a measure of the number of individuals in a population that have a defined disease and is subject to problems like poor response rates. Studies over the same area repeatedly over the same area indicate that incidence, the number of new cases of a condition has remained stable. In other words, there has not been an uptick in the number of new cases of autism. Brent quotes Jonathon Swift in saying “Falsehood flies and the truth comes limping after; so when men come to be undeceived, it is too late: the jest is over and the tale has had its effect to describe the public sentiment that vaccines cause autism (p.517). The first study that was then widely cited was eventually disproved after other studies. Systematic reviews have found no link and the author suggest that this panic is partially the fault of the media for cultivating hysteria.
Kirkland, Anna. “The Legitimacy of Vaccine Critics:What Is Left after the Autism Hypothesis?” Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 37.1 (2012): 69-97. Web.
This article examines the reactions that vaccine doubters are having now that it has been established in the scientific community that vaccines do not cause autism. An enormous amount of money and effort has been spent on research and litigation on this issue as in the early days following the 1998 Lancet article, there was a significant amount of controversy and actual legitimate concern. However this article was found to be scientifically inadequate, other scientists disproved and the conclusion has been already set. By examining the discourse between the anti-vaccine community and the external community, the author comes to the conclusion that by relying on sources that have been discredited in the mainstream, the anti-vaccine movement strengthens its own internal legitimacy at the cost of external legitimacy, however by mimicking the mainstream position they have continued to be given a space in the political process. According to Kirkland, “Vaccine critics have built an alternative world of internal legitimacy that mimics all the features of the mainstream research world — the journals, the conferences, the publications, the letters after the names — and some leaders have gained access to policy-making positions. The research methodology that the author follows takes into account the fact that there are different actors witching and external to the anti-vaccine movement that each shape the movement in its own way.
Haertlein, L. “Immunizing against bad science:The vaccine court and the Autism Test Cases.” Law and Contemporary Problems 75.211 (2012): 211-232. Web.
This article identifies that the more serious issue involved in the legal cases that are being brought to the court is the loss of trust in vaccines. There is a tension between what the public views as adequate proof to bring before the court and what the court consider meeting the burden of proof. The vaccine court is unique and specifically geared to hearing cases related to vaccine law. The center of the dispute when it comes to vaccine cases is the fact that causation in off table suits i.e. those that have not been already recognized as cased vaccines is that the law only requires that “the petitioner’s theory of causation needed only to be “‘logical’ and legally probable, not medically or scientifically certain” (p.215). This is actually quite a low bar and the recent spate of vaccine cases is testing these limits and demonstrating that there is a need for stronger requirements, especially since the federal circuit have already chastised the court for raising restrictions without permission. The test cases put in front of the court have criticized the courts decisions and accused them of enforcing a higher standard of proof in autism suits. In reality, what is needed is a more scientific consideration in the law itself
Jarrett, Christian. “Autism –myth and reality.” Psychologist 27.10 (2014): 746-749. Web
This article tackles some of the myths that surround autism. He states that that “Not everyone with autism is a genius… People with autism can be friendly and caring” additionally he affirms that the “ The MMR vaccine does not cause autism” Like other papers considered for the article, it cites the Lancet article and reminds audiences that this paper was actually redacted from the journal and that this doctor lost his medical license because of his poor behavior. Unfortunately this myth is very pervasive and is causing a fall in vaccination rates that in turn Is costing lives as children become ill will diseases that could have prevented by getting the vaccine.
This article is short of information specifically about the vaccine issues but it does call also call into questions the validity of the idea that there is an increasing outbreak of autism, related to vaccines or otherwise. If there has been no increase in the number of children with autism, then it’s unlikely that vaccines are at fault
Miller, Lisa and Joni Reynolds. “Autism and Vaccination—The Current Evidence.” Journal Compilation 14.3 (2009): 166-172. Web.
The focus of this article is to clearly outline what the scientific research on autism is. Nurses and health practitioners want to know what they should tell their patients. The article beings with an explanation of the history of vaccines in the United States and how vaccines are monitored to ensure that there are not issues with them. The success of vaccines has led to a situation where parents are not concerned about the disease because they don’t know anything about how terrible it is for their children As the authors point out “parents[are] not experiencing firsthand…these diseases…are now more concerned about the risks, real and theoretical, of recommended childhood vaccines. Ultimately however these fears are unfounded because there is no scientific evidence for a connection between vaccines and autism and vaccination rates are again starting to rise (p.167).